SRT #38 - 密封舱位之危险性 2013.06.01

2013-06-02 22:33  浏览次数 21



众所俱知每艘船船上因设计或需要都有些密封的地方 (enclosed space或称 confined space) 这些地方如 Void space, Cofferdam Ballast tank 等除了每 4 年特检时才会打开检查, 其他时间它们都是密封状态, 因此导致缺乏氧气或产生毒气, 笔者曾经三次亲身经历死里逃生意外事件的发生深知它的危险性,


The following are the points that need to be followed before entering an enclosed space:

Ÿ  Risk assessment to be carried out by a competent officer as enclosed or confined space entry is deficient in oxygen, making it a potential life hazard.

Ÿ  A list of work to be done should be made for the ease of assessment for e.g. if welding to be carried out or some pipe replacement etc. This helps in carrying out the work quickly and easily.

Ÿ  Risk assessment also needs to be carried out. Risk assessment includes what work to be done, rescue operation etc.

Ÿ  Potential hazards are to be identified such as presence of toxic gases.

Ÿ  Opening and securing has to be done and precaution should be taken to check if the opening of enclosed space is pressurized or not.

Ÿ  All fire hazard possibilities should be minimized if hot work is to be carried out. This can be done by emptying the fuel tank or chemical tanknearby the hot work place.

Ÿ  The confined space has to be well ventilated before entering.

Ÿ  The space has to be checked for oxygen content and other gas content with the help of oxygen analyzer and gas detector.

Ÿ  The oxygen content should read 20% by volume. Percentage less than that is not acceptable and more time for ventilation should be given in such circumstances.

Ÿ  Enough lighting and illumination should be present in the enclosed space before entering.

Ÿ  A proper permit to work has to be filled out and checklist to be checked so as to prevent any accident which can endanger life.

Ÿ  Permit to work is to be valid only for a certain time period. If time period expires then again new permit is to be issued and checklist is to be filled out.

Ÿ  Permit to work has to be checked and permitted by the Master of the ship in order to work in confined space.

Ÿ  Proper signs and Men at work sign boards should be provided at required places so that person should not start any equipment, machinery or any operation in the confined space endangering life of the people working.

Ÿ  Duty officer has to be informed before entering the enclosed space.

Ÿ  The checklist has to be signed by the person involved in entry and also by a competent officer.

Ÿ  One person always has to be kept standby to communicate with the person inside the space.

Ÿ  The person may also carry a life line with him inside.

Ÿ  The person should carry oxygen analyzer with him inside the enclosed space and it should be on all the time to monitor the oxygen content.  As soon as level drops, the analyzer should sound alarm and the space should be evacuated quickly without any delay.

Ÿ  No source of ignition has to be taken inside unless the Master or competent officer is satisfied.

Ÿ  The number of persons entering should be constrained to the adequate number of persons who are actually needed inside for work.

Ÿ  The rescue and resuscitation equipment are to be present outside the confined space. Rescue equipment includes breathing air apparatus and spare charge bottles.

Ÿ  Means of hoisting an incapacitated person should be available.

Ÿ  After finishing the work and when the person is out of the enclosed space, the after work checklist has to be filled.

Ÿ  The permit to work has to be closed after this

The above mentioned procedure is extremely important to entering an enclosed space. These points are imperative to risk any crew member’s life while entering a confined space.

下面文章是具有40年航运教材之伦敦 Videotel公司所提供:        虽然由密封舱位所引起的意外和死亡事件很少见报但并不证明没有发生,所以唤起业者的注意和行动去阻止或减少这种意外的发生.

More must be done to prevent deaths in enclosed spaces

Friday, 12 April 2013 | 11:00

As more needless deaths in enclosed spaces are reported this week - but yet again fail to make headlines  a call to action is needed and the industry must take note and bring this issue to the attention of each and every seafarer.
"More must be done," says Nigel Cleave, CEO of Videotel. "Every seafarer should be made aware of the risks of enclosed spaces - indeed have the message reinforced at every opportunity - there is no justification for another death. The legislation is in place; by law vessels should have the proper equipment in place, and yet time and time again seafarers fail to use the protection available to them and another preventable death is in the news."
Of course with such a history of repeated, tragic accidents - reported almost routinely in the maritime press - something must change. The Marine Accident Investigators International Forum has identified that accidents in enclosed/confined spaces
continue to be one of the most common causes of work-related fatalities on board ships today.
"The psychological imperative to rescue a fallen seafarer is very strong," explains Mr Cleave. "So often we see multiple casualties, with the first seafarer collapsing and his colleagues immediately rushing to his aid and subsequently being overcome. This is the very reason we choose video as the medium for Videotel's
courses in this area. It makes a unique emotive connection with the seafarer, ensuring that the proper safety procedures - and the reasons for them - stay in the mind even under the stress of an emergency situation."
Ironically, the psychological make-up that causes the seafarer to rush in after colleagues, fails to kick-in to prevent the casualty in the first place. Seemingly innocuous cargoes - timber, charcoal, steel - have all taken their toll on the lives of seafarers and continue to do so.
Training each and every individual is absolutely paramount - humans do not possess an intuitive fear of some of the most dangerous cargoes, and it is essential that they are properly trained to be cautious.
Source: Videotel

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